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(These notes appear in parentheses in the main text, and sprinkled throughout the website)

1 The Yale University Tercentennial, A Progress Report, 200:, 1-2.

2 Mary Mitchell, "Slavery in Connecticut and especially New Haven," 1932: 294.

3 Leonard Bacon, Historical Discourses, (New Haven, 1839), 388. Davenport’s slave ownership is also reported in William Fowler, "The Historical Status of the Negro in Connecticut," Historical Magazine, (January 1874), 13; and in Mitchell 1932: 294n2.

4 Historical Catalogue of 1st Church of Hartford, 182, 188; and Mitchell 1932: 288n1. See also Fowler 1874: 13.

5 Kenneth Minkema, "Jonathan Edwards on Slavery and the Slave Trade," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Series, 54:4 (October 1997) 825.

6 See (June 21, 2001).

7 Cynthia A. Kierner, Traders and Gentlefolk: The Livingstons of New York 1675-1790, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992), 65.

8 Cynthia A. Kierner, Traders and Gentlefolk, 1992: 35-40.

9 Cynthia A. Kierner, Traders and Gentlefolk, 1992: 63.

10 Roberta Singer, "The Livingstons as Slaveholders: The ‘Peculiar Institution’ on Livingston Manor and Clermont," in Richard T. Wiles, ed., The Livingston Legacy: Three Centuries of American History, (Annandale, NY: Bard College Office of Publications, 1987), 70.

11 Cynthia A. Kierner, Traders and Gentlefolk, 1992: 71-72. See also James G. Lydon, "New York and the Slave Trade, 1700-1774," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 35 (1978) 375-394.

12 James Lydon, "New York and the Slave Trade, 1700-1774," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 35:2 (April 1978), 388-390, 389n42. See also Darold D. Wax, "A Philadelphia Surgeon on a Slaving Voyage to Africa, 1749-1751" Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, XCII (1968): 467.

13 Quoted in Roberta Singer, "The Livingstons as Slaveholders," 1987: 70.

14 Berkeley did not attend Yale, and never stepped foot onto its campus. Gaustad, 1979: 89.

15 Berkeley, Proposal, 347. See his sermon in Newport, preached October, 1729 (Miscellaneous Works, 381).

16 The bills of slave can be found in the British Museum (Ms. 39316). George C. Mason, Annals of Trinity Church, 1698-1821, 51. See also Edwin Gaustad, George Berkeley in America, 94n35.

17 The Berkeley Papers in the Beinecke Rare Book Library at Yale University contain the original receipts that document Charles Handy sending rental moneys to Yale for his lease of Whitehall, the old Berkeley plantation, in 1772, 1773, and 1774.

18 Rhode Island General Assembly, Census of the State of Rhode Island, 1774: 16.

19 Louis Masur, "Slavery in 18th-century Rhode Island: Evidence from the Census of 1774," Slavery and Abolition 6:2 (1985), 139-140.

20 In Newport county, about 22% of all white households owned slaves in 1774; in the 1860s, about 25% of white households in the American South owned slaves. See Masur 1985: 142.

21 For more about the conditions of slavery on Rhode Island plantations, see Rhett Jones, "Plantation Slavery in the Narragansett County of Rhode Island 1640-1790," Plantation Society 2 (1986) 157-170; and Robert K. Fitts, Inventing New England’s Slave Paradise: Master/Slave Relations in Eighteenth Century Narragansett, Rhode Island, (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998).

22 Yale still owns Whitehall farm, though in 1972 it ceded title to the house. In 1762, Yale signed a 999-year lease for Whitehall farm. This lease changed hands many times, until in 1900 it came into the hands of the "Society of the Colonial Dames of Rhode Island," who received the full title to the house in 1972. In the year 2761, the lease will expire and Yale will recover control of the property. See Edwin Gaustad, George Berkeley in America, 85n11.

23 Berkeley, Proposal: 348.

24 Berkeley, Proposal: 359.

25 Fowler 1874: 83, 13. See also: Mitchell, 1932: 294, and Frederick Norton, "Negro Slavery in Connecticut," Connecticut Magazine, vol. 5, 1899: 320.

26 Robert French, The Memorial Quadrangle (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1929), 413, see also 30-31. This fund is reputedly "still in existence." See also Charles Biggs, Jared Eliot: A Son of Guilford (Christ Episcopal Church) 7; Herbert Thoms, The Doctors Jared of Connecticut (Hamden: Shoe String Press, 1958) 31.

27 Bill of sale or indenture made by Eliphalet Adams of New London, Conn to Joseph and Jonathan Trumbull of Lebanon, Conn. Whereby he sells his mulatto girl Flora, a slave for life. May 12, 1736. Connecticut State Archives (MV 326 Ad15).

28 Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., Papers, Connecticut State Archives, Hartford, Connecticut.

29 Reprinted in Am I Not a Man and a Brother, 1977: 143-145.

30 Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, 1998: 232.

31 "Trumbull Street" in New Haven commemorates Jonathan Trumbull’s widow. See Doris B. Townsend, The Streets of New Haven, 1998: 142.

32 Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Minister’s Wooing (Hartford: Stowe-Day Foundation, 1978) 222, 277f. Originally printed by Derby and Jackson, New York, 1859.

33 Samuel Hopkins and Ezra Stiles, "To the Public" (August 31, 1773), reprinted in Bruns, Am I Not a Man and a Brother, 1977: 290-293.

34 Samuel Hopkins, "A Dialogue on Slavery" (1776), reprinted in Am I Not a Man and a Brother, 1977: 397-426.

35 James Essig, The Bonds of Wickedness, (Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 1982), 66.

36 Morgan 1962: 125. See Stiles’ Journal of the first months at Newport in Gannett Almanacs. A note in Stiles’ Literary Diary (SLD) confirms that this boy was "Bought for Dr. Stiles at Cape Mount on the coast of Guinea in 1757 (when supposed to be about 11 years old), in exchange for a hogshead of whiskey" (Stiles, Literary Diary, I: 521). Roland Bainton tells the story like this: "[Ezra Stiles’] awakening as to slavery came when a parishioner inquired whether Stiles would like to share in a slaving expedition on the coast of Guinea. He contributed a small keg of rum and was rewarded with a little blackamoor" (Bainton 1957: 144).

37 Stiles’ Literary Diary, 2:272.

38 Stiles’ Literary Diary, 3:51.

39 The terms of Jacob’s bondage are repeated again later in the diary, on April 12, 1784: "Jacob, Newport’s boy, was three years old last November. Bound to me till age 24" (Stiles, Literary Diary, 3:118).

40 Stiles, Literary Diary, 3:25. On June 11, 1782, Aaron was bonded to Stiles by his mother, and his bondage lasted "until the last day of May, 1795." Ezra Stiles died on May 12, 1795.

41 Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, 1998: 238.

42 In its inaugural year, 1790, James Dana presented to the Society a sermon entitled "The African Slave Trade" that called for the abolition of slavery. In 1791, Jonathan Edwards Jr. preached the soon-to-be-famous sermon, "The Impolicy and Impropriety of the African Slave Trade." In 1794, Theodore Dwight, the brother of soon-to-be-president Timothy Dwight, preached a powerful sermon that also called for the abolition of slavery.

43 See The Constitution of the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom and for the relief of persons unlawfully holden in Bondage (Yale University, Beinecke Library, BrSides Ci 64a 1790).

44 See The Constitution (Yale University, Beinecke Library, BrSides Ci 64a 1790).

45 H. Channing to Simeon Baldwin, Nov. 22, 1790, Box 6, Baldwin Family Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University. As quoted in James Essig, "Connecticut Ministers and Slavery," 27.

46 David Brion Davis, Slavery in the Age of Revolution, (Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 1975), 218n6.

47 James Essig, "Connecticut Ministers and Slavery," 43.

48 F. B. Dexter, "New Haven in 1784," The New Haven Colony Historical Society Papers (Read Jan. 21, 1884), 130.

49 Horatio T. Strother, The Underground Railroad in Connecticut, 1962: 212 (appendix 3).

50 See Robert W. Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, "Philanthropy at Bargain Prices: Notes on the economics of gradual emancipation," Journal of Legal Studies 3 (1974), 377-401.

51 Joanne Pope Melish, Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and ‘Race’ in New England, 1780-1860, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998), 88-89.

52 Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, 1998: 238.

53 Eight statues adorn Harkness Tower. J.C. Calhoun’s is joined by S.F.B. Morse’s and J. Edwards’, among others.

54 This statement is a summary of a forthcoming article about Hillhouse’s anti-slavery activism, which will be published by the Amistad Committee, in collaboration with Yale’s Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery.

55 John Niven, John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union: A Biography (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988), 33.

56 In 1846, Calhoun oversaw his son’s plantation and wrote a graphic report: "I rode over the whole, & saw every thing; & found things in about as good a condition, as might be expected under circumstances. The Negroes were all well, & looked well, except Susan, who had taken the chills & fever at Arthur Simkin. They were also very contented & spoke well of the overseer. The Mules & horses were in fair condition. The cattle very lean, … The sheep looked well… The hogs,… The corn…." See John C. Calhoun, "To T[homas] G. Clemson, [Brussels] (Washington, 9th Dec[embe]r 1846), in The Papers of John C. Calhoun (hereafter, PJCC), edited by Clyde N. Wilson and Shirley Bright Cook (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina, 1998), XXIV: 6-7.

57 John C. Calhoun, "Speech and Resolution on the Restriction of Slavery from the Territories," in PJCC, XXIV, 169-176.

58 See John C. Calhoun, "Speech and Resolution on the Restriction of Slavery from the Territories," in PJCC, XXIV, 169-176.

59 David Brion Davis, Slavery and Human Progress (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1984), 237.

60 See Congressional Globe, 27 Cong., 2 sess., pp. 805-7; 27 Cong., 3 sess., p. 175. Cited in Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961), 33.

61 See John C. Calhoun, "Speech on His Slavery Resolutions in Reply to James F. Simmons," in PJCC, XXIV, 190.

62 William S. Jenkins, Pro-slavery Thought in the Old South (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1935), 80.

63 As quoted in Henry Wilson, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, v. II (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1874), 37.

64 Thomas G. Bergin, Yale’s Residential Colleges, The First 50 Years (New Haven: Yale Univ., 1983).

65 In 1909, William Howard Taft, a Yalie, became U.S. President.

66 Brooks M. Kelly calls Dwight the "mentor" of John C. Calhoun. Kelly, 1974: 138.

67 "[Under Dwight], Yale became an increasingly national institution; became, in fact, perhaps the most national of American colleges … Yale attracted Southerners because her reputation reached there early" (Kelly, 1974: 138). See also Warner, New Haven Negroes, 1940: 2-3.

68 This manuscript can be found in Yale’s "Manuscripts and Archives," Dwight Family Papers (Group 187, series I, box 1, folder 1). The signature matches that of the Yale President, to whom this manuscript must belong. (Colonel Timothy Dwight, the father of the Dwight who would become president, died in 1779, before this manuscript.)

69 In 1874 William Fowler wrote an article on slavery in Connecticut. He included some personal recollections from Yale. Fowler, who graduated from Yale during Dwight’s tenure in 1812, reports: "President Dwight, on one occasion, in illustrating their good qualities, spoke of a negro woman, in his family, who was often consulted as to the management of his family concerns. Amused by this eulogy, some of my classmates laughed outright; when the Doctor broke out upon them: ‘If I had thought, young gentlemen, that you would have as much good judgment and good sense as my servant woman has, I should have a higher opinion of you than I now have.’ There was no more laughing" (Fowler, 1874: 83). It appears that some African-American servant, possibly Naomi, remained with the Dwight family at least until Fowler’s time at Yale.

70 Tise shows that during this period, Yale graduated 19 proslavery clergy. The next closest, South Carolina College, graduated 14. Princeton graduated 9, and Harvard, 7. Tise then names the most prominent proslavery Yale grads: "From Moses Stuart (1799) to Christopher E. Gadsden (1804), Gardiner Spring (1805), Calvin Colton (1812), Elisha Mitchell (1813), Theodore Clapp (1814), Joseph Clay Stiles (1814), Nathaniel S. Wheaton (1814), Jared Bell Waterbury (1822), and others, Yale’s clerical proslavery graduates were as successful and distinguished as nonclerical alumni, Samuel F. B. Morse and John C. Calhoun" (Larry Tise, Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America , 1987: 141-142).

71 This is the professorship endowed by Col. Philip Livingston (see above). Only two Yale presidents held this chair: Naphtali Daggett (1755-1780) and Timothy Dwight (1795-1817).

72 Kelly, 1974: 118-119. Kelly himself "wonders how much the conservatism of Noah Porter Sr., John C. Calhoun, and Augustus Baldwin Longstreet (to name a diverse few) was due to their mentor [Dwight]" (138).

73 Timothy Dwight, President Dwight’s decisions of questions discussed by the senior class in Yale College, in 1813 and 1814, (New York: Boston, Crocker & Brewster, 1833), 103.

74 Timothy Dwight, Greenfield Hill, Part II, lines 253-260, page 38.

75 Dwight, Greenfield Hill, Part II, lines 269-279, page 39

76 James Essig, "Connecticut Ministers and Slavery 1790-1795," Journal of American Studies, 15:1 (1981), 32.

77 Silverman, Timothy Dwight, 70. See also Larry Tice, Proslavery, 210.

78 Timothy Dwight, Remarks on Review of Inchiquin’s Letter (Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong, 1815), 81 II n.1.81.

79 Timothy Dwight, The Charitable Blessed: A Sermon, preached in the First Church in New Haven, August 8, 1810 (n.p.: Sidney Press, 1810) 20-21.

80 Timothy Dwight, Statistical Account of the City of New Haven, (New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1811), 57-58.

81 Charles Cunningham, Timothy Dwight 1752-1817: A Biography, (New York: MacMillan, 1942), 336.

82 Kelly, 1974: 125.

83 Kelly, 1974: 130. Dwight also fired Professor J. Meigs (mathematics) because he was too liberal.

84 Timothy Dwight’s grandson, another Timothy Dwight, was also appointed to the Yale presidency, in 1881. The college, and Dwight Hall, are both named after both Yale presidents.

85 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 33.

86 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 18. "A part of [Benjamin Silliman’s] Yale education had been financed through the sale of slaves" (Brown, 33).

87 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 36.

88 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 55-56.

89 For more on what Joanne Melish terms "statutory slaves," see the section on gradual emancipation, above.

90 Quoted from a letter to Benjamin from Joseph. See Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 88.

91 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 56, 338n48.

92 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 120.

93 The need to support Job sparked anger and resentment in Benjamin’s brother, Selleck, who referred to Job as a "negro sink" not worth "throwing [money] away" to support (Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 313).

94 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 33.

95 Brown, Benjamin Silliman, 1989: 119n

96 Some of the Causes of National Anxiety, an address delivered in the Centre Church in New Haven, July 4, 1832, in The African Repository and Colonial Journal vol.8, no. 6 (Aug 1832) 171.

97 Benjamin Silliman, Some of the Causes of National Anxiety, 1832: 184-185.

98 Simeon Jocelyn would later become the designer of the "Trowbridge Square" neighborhood, which still exists south of the Hill neighborhood. Floyd Shumway and R. Hegel, New Haven: A Topographical History, 1988: 29.

99 Negro Convention Movement, 1831-1893: The first national organized self-help movement, advocating immediate abolition and equal rights. "The conventions consistently condemned the American Colonization Society’s plan to exile emancipated blacks to Africa, and called for the recognition of the constitutional rights of free black people and the integration and assimilation of blacks into American society" (Gibson, 25-26).

100 Philadelphia Chronicle, Sept. 5, 1831, "College for Colored Youth." In Kingsley Miscellaneous Pamphlets, vol. 26, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscripts Library, Yale University.

101 Reprinted in Constitution of the American Society of the Free Persons of Colour, for Improving their Condition in the United States, Philadelphia, J.W. Allen, 1831, "June 6, Afternoon." In Yale Slavery Pamphlets vol. 86 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscripts Library, Yale University.

102 Constitution of the American Society of Free Persons of Color for Improving their Condition (1831). In Yale’s Beinecke Library as "Yale Slavery Pamphlets #86," 9ff.

103 Constitution of the American Society of Free Persons of Color for Improving their Condition (1831). In Yale’s Beinecke Library as "Yale Slavery Pamphlets #86," 9ff.

104 As quoted in William Fowler 1874: 151.

105 Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan, (Arno: New York, 1970), 150.

106 The fifth, Roger Sherman Baldwin (later of Amistad fame) spoke in favor of opening the "Negro college."

107 The committee also included New Haven’s four previous mayors (Baldwin, Bristol, Daggett, Ingersoll).

108 "The resolutions [against the college] were proposed by a committee appointed to draft them, composed of the following gentlemen: Judges Bristol and Baldwin, Jehiel Forbes, S. J. Hitchcock, R. I. Ingersoll, Samuel Wadsworth, Dr. Punderson, A. R. Street, I. H. Townsend, and John Durrie, Esquires." Judge Daggett, Nathan Smith, R. I. Ingersoll, and I. H. Townsend officially spoke against establishing a "Negro college," (College for Coloured Youth, 1881: 3).

109 This "Nathan Smith" has no known relation to the "Nathan Smith" who helped found the Yale Medical School, and who died in 1829, before the "Negro College" incident.

110 College for Coloured Youth: An Account of the New-Haven City Meeting and Resolutions: With Recommendations of the College, and Strictures upon the Doings of New Haven, (New York: Publ. By the Committee, 1831), 5. Kingsley Miscellaneous Pamphlets, vol. 26, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscripts Library, Yale University. All the following references to newspaper articles are also reprinted in this source.

111 The Town meeting resolutions are reprinted in College for Coloured Youth (see above).

112 Lewis Tappan, The Life of Arthur Tappan, (New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1970), 150.

113 The Utica Elucidator: "It was resolved that the establishment of the college would be incompatible with the interests of Yale College and the female schools of the city, and that it should be resisted by every lawful means."

114 Kurt Schmoke, "The Dixwell Avenue Congregational Church 1829-1896," New Haven Colony Historical Society Journal 20:1 (May 1971), 6, 19. Kurt Schmoke published this essay while a senior in Yale College. He is Senior Fellow of the Yale Corporation, until June, 2002.

115 Warner, New Haven Negroes, 1940: 2-3

116 "The numbers in 1830 reflect the effect of Calhoun’s status as a Yale graduate … He is credited for having influenced the political history of the United States more than any other graduate in the first two centuries of Yale’s history." See Garry Lacy Reeder, "Elms and Magnolias: Yale and the American South," exhibition at Sterling Library (1996),

117 Horatio Strother, The Underground Railroad in Connecticut, 1962: 113

118 Kelly, 1974: Yale: A History, 151.

119 James Herrick, 1851: Catalogue of the principal deceased benefactors to the Academical department of Yale College. "Yale University Office of Finance and Administration Records," YRG 5, 1701-, 1940-1983 (bulk), Manuscripts and Archives, Sterling Library, Yale University.

120 As quoted in College for Coloured Youth, Boston Courier, September 20, 1831. Ironically, Yale never managed to collect large donations from the South. The nullification controversy was underway, and longtime friends of the College–even Calhoun–expressed their regrets. Nevertheless, even without significant donations from the South, Yale succeeded at its goal of raising a $100,000 endowment. See Warner, New Haven Negroes, 1940: 2-3.

121 Annual report of the ACS, 1828-1837; See also William Jay, An Inquiry into the Character and Tendency of the American Colonization and American Anti-Slavery Societies. New York: Leavitt, Lord & Co., 1835. Benjamin Silliman also used the fear of insurrection as a basis to advocate sending black people to Africa. See African Repository 8:6 (August 1832) 171-172.

122 Jeremiah Day is the Vice President from Connecticut for the Society in 1831. See "The Fourteenth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society." Georgetown: James Dunn, 1831, xxvi.

123 Hugh Davis, Leonard Bacon, 1998: 56.

124 Minutes and Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention of the Free People of Colour, 1832.

125 As quoted in Leon Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961) 124. See also Jay, 1835, p. 26.

126 Gibson writes, "During the antebellum period, education was one of the most important goals of free blacks of the North. Free blacks hoped that education would improve their economic and social standing in American society and break down the barriers of racism and discrimination … Blacks were given very little encouragement to attain their educational goals. In most northern states, Negroes were excluded from public schools, even though they were taxed to support them. The idea of black and white children attending the same schools alarmed whites. Efforts to change whites’ predisposition frequently resulted in bitter and at times violent opposition." See Robert A. Gibson, "A Deferred Dream: The Proposal for a Negro College in New Haven," Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society 37:2, 24.

127 Samuel J. May, Some Recollections of our Anti-Slavery Conflict, (Boston: Fields, Osgood & Co., 1869).

128 Rollin G. Osterweis. Three centuries of New Haven, 1638-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953, 296

129 College for colored youth : an account of the New-Haven city meeting, 1831.

130 Early Fox, The American Colonization Society 1817-1840, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1919), 140.

131 College for colored youth : an account of the New-Haven city meeting, 1831.

132 Osterweis, 289. See also Mary McQueeney, "Simeon Jocelyn, New Haven Reformer," Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, (19:3) 66

133 Horatio Strother, The Underground Railroad in Connecticut 1962: 110.

134 In 1835 the Philadelphia Convention reported few gains in higher education for blacks: "The committee to whom was referred the duty to ascertain how many manual labour schools are established in the U. States for the instruction of colored youths, beg leave to state, that as far as the committee have been able to learn, there is but one, which is located in the village of Peterborough, Madison County, NY, Founded by Gerritt Smith, Esq. The number of scholars is limited to 18; at present there are but nine: this school has been in operation one year" (Convention minutes 1835, 10).

135 Oberlin College, established in 1833 in Ohio, did admit some African-American students on a selective basis. It remained, however, a predominantly white institution. See J. Band Roebuck and S. Marty Kumanderi, Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Place in American Higher Education (Westport, CT: Praeger Press, 1993).

136 Pierson 1976: 53-54.

137 Schmoke 1971: 6.

138 Notable Black American Men. Gale Research, 1998.

139 Franklin B. Dexter, Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College. New York: H. Holt & Co., 1885-1912. Vol. V, page 249.

140 Roland Bainton, Yale and the Ministry (1957), 155-156. See also Joseph C. Lovejoy, Memoir of Rev. Charles T. Torrey .Boston, J.P. Jewett, 1847: 364.

141 Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale College (New Haven, 1903).

142 Gibbs Laboratory is named after the physicist Josiah Gibbs, who graduated from Yale is 1858, long after the Amistad event was over. The physicist Gibbs was the son of the philologist Gibbs.

143 Shortly before John Quincy Adams argued the Amistad case before the U.S. Supreme Court, he spoke with Francis Scott Key, a national leader of the American Colonization Society. Key told him, "The best thing that could be done, was to make up a purse, and then pay for them, and then send them back to Africa." Simeon E. Baldwin, The Captives of the Amistad, New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1886, 353; see also 363-4.

144 Kelley, Yale: A History, 1974: 145.

145 John T. Wayland. The Theological Department in Yale College, 1822-1858. New York, Garland Publishing, 1987: 82. Also: "In 1808, [N.W. Taylor] became a student of theology with President Dwight for 4 years, an unusually thorough and protracted course for that period. For two years, Taylor was a member of Dwight’s family, acting as his amanuensis, and writing down, at his dictation, most of the sermons which comprise his ‘theological system’ " (Wayland 1987: 81).

146 This was only Yale’s second endowed chair, in addition to the chair typically occupied by Yale’s president.

147Wayland, 1987: 79.

148 Wayland, 1987: 298-300. See Treasurer’s Book of the Rhetorical Society, Book E.

149 Letter from "Alison" on October 20, 1768. See Ezra Stiles, Letters & papers of Ezra Stiles, president of Yale College, 1778-1795, Isabel M. Calder, ed. (New Haven: Yale University, 1933), 434.

150 Beecher is most famous for the "Lane Rebellion," a conflict between colonizationists and abolitionists in Cincinnati. Beecher "would not tolerate whites fraternizing with blacks, even in the line of religious duty, because it would inevitably lead to ‘promiscuity and mongrelization’." See J. Earl Thompson Jr., "Lyman Beecher’s Long Road to Conservative Abolitionism," Church History, 100. He viewed free blacks as "a permanently alien and unassimilable element of the population" (91) and as a "definite liability to the economic prosperity and social stability of white America" (95).

151 Kelley, 1974: 145

152 Roland Bainton 1957: 146.

153 Moses Stuart, Conscience and the Constitution. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1850, 33. If Stuart refers to the same draft letter on slavery that exists today, he overstates Edwards’ position. Nevertheless, this remark helps to illuminate both Stuart and Edwards’ role. Edwards, like both Dwight and Stuart, was a theological conservative, and his name and prominence would be used to defend the conservative position on slavery up through the Civil War. Other writers picked up this version of Edwards: "President Jonathan Edwards wrote a vindication of the slave trade. This I state on the authority of Professor Moses Stuart." Fowler, 1874: 17; Jonathan Edwards "not only owned slaves but wrote in vidication of the slave trade." Mitchell, 1932: 302.

154 Stuart, 1850: 45-46.

155 Stuart, 1850: 49.

156 Roland Bainton, Yale and the Ministry, 1957: 157-158.

157 Roland Bainton, Yale and the Ministry, 1957: 158.

158 Morse wrote a 200-page book devoted almost exclusively to the evils of immigration generally and of Roman Catholics in particular: Foreign Conspiracy against the Liberties of the United States (New York: 1835). Another booklet, written the same year, reveals a reason for his vehemence: Irish Roman Catholic agitators denounced the South and had "thrown a firebrand into the Slavery question;" Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United States Through Foreign Immigration (New York: 1835), reprinted in New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969: 14.

159 The Constitution, Papers from the Society for the Diffusion of Public Knowledge, S. F. B. Morse, President, New York: Offices of the Society, 1863; and S. F. B. Morse, An Argument on the Ethical Position of Slavery in the social system, and its relation to the politics of the day (New York, Papers from the Society for the Diffusion of Political Knowledge, no. 12, 1863) in Slavery Pamphlets # 60, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.

160 Morse, Ethical Position of Slavery, 1863: 13.

161 Morse, Ethical Position of Slavery, 1863: 16.

162 Morse, Ethical Position of Slavery, 1863:10.

163 Samuel F.B. Morse, Letters and Journals, ed. E. L. Morse, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914), 2:331.

164 Samuel F.B. Morse, Letters and Journals, ed. E. L. Morse, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914), 2:416

165 Morse, Ethical Position of Slavery, 1863: 10

166 Morse, Ethical Position of Slavery, 1863: 17

167 Mabee, 1943: 346, 348-350

168 Morse, Diffusion of Knowledge, 1863, 2

169 Morse, Diffusion of Knowledge, 1863, 4

170 Morse, Diffusion of Knowledge, 1863, 3

171 George Pierson, Yale: A Short History (published by the Office of the Secretary, Yale University: 1976), 53.